12-Jul-2002 -- Coming from the Pentland Firth (the channel between Scotland and the Orkney
Islands), today we passed the southernmost tip of Norway, Ryvingen Island, and
a little bit more in the East there is the confluence 58°N 8°E.
Unfortunately we had not yet plain daylight, so the pictures did not turn
out to be very clear.
The confluence is about 7 km South of Flekkerøy Island, and close to Flekkeroy in the East there is the tiny Island of
Oksøy, with a lighthouse on it.
The first visitors arrived in Norway already 8000 b. Chr. They were
fishermen and hunters and lived in earth huts, later tends in the Finmark,
Møre, Trøndelag, on the West and South coast.
The first rock drawings come from about 5000 b. Chr. They show animals,
boats and hunters on skis. Between 3000 and 2000 b. Chr. the first men
settled and started with agriculture. But in all likelihood they had no
contact with neighbouring peoples.
From the Bronze Age (1500-500 b. Chr.) come the first grave hills, and 500-0
b. Chr. the production of iron becomes more and more important. In these
times they traded already with other European peoples. This fact is proven
by coins, arms and glassware found.
In 200 AD the first rune-alphabet, the "Furthark" was introduced. It
consisted of 24 letters. The production of iron increases continuously.
From 800-1000 they began to colonize Northern England, Scotland, the Isle of
Man, the Shetland and Orkney Islands, the Faeroe Islands, Iceland,
Greenland, parts of the Normandy, and finally the discover America, about
In 800, due to several wars between various kings and mere love of adventure
the Vikings left their home and the Viking migrations began. They come as
far as to the Mediterranean. In 890 Harald Hårfagre ("Harald Finehair")
unites Norway under one kingdom. Ireland becomes Norwegian.
In 995 king König Olav Tryggvason christianizes the country.
Between 1261 and 62 Greenland und Iceland become Norwegian, and in 1266 king
Magnus VI. Lagabøter puts an end to a long lasting war with Scotland,
selling the Isle of Man and the Hebrides to Scotland.
From 1349 to 50 one third of the Norwegians die from plague.
In 1379, due to several marriages Norway gets linked with Sweden and
Denmark. These countries will soon be united by Queen Margarethe in the
Union of Kalmar.
In fact Norway then was nothing else than a province of Denmark. Danish
became the official language. In 1536, quite shortly after the Reformation,
Norway became Lutherian.
1716-18: The Swedes attack Norway, but when their king Karl XII. was killed
in Fredrikshald, they had to withdraw.
In 1814 the Peace Treaty of Kiel was signed. Norway forms now a Personal
Union with Sweden, which lasted until 1905, when Norway became an
independent kingdom. The Danish Prince Karl became King Haakon VII. of
On April 9th, 1940 Germany attacks Norway, and after nine months the country
is occupied. The Norwegian king and the government flee to England.
A puppet government was formed by the Germans, under Prime Minister
Lundqvist. Lundqvist became an example of the most disgraceful and
scandalous kind of collaboration with the enemy, betraying his own people
just to please the occupants.
Norway remained occupied until 1945, and in 1949 it became a member of the
In 1970 extensive oil resources were found and made the country the
wealthiest of Europe.
The time has come to say good bye to Chief Engineer Volodymyr Kokorev. In three days, upon arrival in Saint Petersburg, he has
completed his contract and will leave the ship for his vacation in the
This was his last confluence, and he was a valuable confluence companion
throughout the last seven months.
We visited offshores together in the Baltic Sea, in West Africa, South
America, the US, Cuba, the Bahamas, Scotland and Norway together.
Farewell, Volodymyr, and hope to see you again aboard my ship!
His place will now be taken by Second Officer Stanislav Shulga.
The picture must not lead to the conclusion that he is particularly
martial - but one of his duties is the miantenance of the ship's safety and
fire fighting equipment, and here he is checking the fire axe.